Monday, May 8, 2017

Understanding Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome



Polycystic ovary syndrome
  (PCOS)  is a problem in which a woman's hormones are out of balance. It can cause problems with the periods and make it difficult to get pregnant.

Most women with PCOS grow many small cysts on their ovaries. That is why it is called polycystic ovary syndrome. The cysts are not harmful but lead to hormone imbalances.

The exact cause of polycystic ovary syndrome is unknown but doctors believe that hormonal imbalances and genetics play a role. Women are more likely to develop PCOS if their mother or sister also has the condition.

Risk factors for having PCOS are being overweight and not doing enough physical exercise.

Symptoms Of PCOS
Some of the symptoms of PCOS include:
 -Irregular menstrual cycle. Women with PCOS may miss periods or have fewer periods (fewer than eight in a year). Or, their periods may come every 21 days or more often. Some women with PCOS stop having menstrual periods.
 -Too much hair on the face, chin, or parts of the body where men usually have hair. This is called "hirsutism."
 -Acne on the face, chest, and upper back
 -Thinning hair or hair loss on the scalp.

 -Weight gain or difficulty losing weight
 -Darkening of skin, particularly along neck creases, in the groin, and underneath breasts
-  Difficulty in conceiving .

A Common Question: Can I get pregnant if i have PCOS?
The answer is Yes. Having PCOS does not mean you can't get pregnant. PCOS is one of the most common, but treatable, causes of infertility in women. In women with PCOS, the hormonal imbalance interferes with the growth and release of eggs from the ovaries (ovulation). If you don't ovulate, you can't get pregnant. Doctors can prescribe drugs that help balance the hormones and make you ovulate and then you can conceive and get pregnant. 

It is important to know that Not everyone with PCOS has polycystic ovaries (PCO), nor does everyone with ovarian cysts have PCOS. 

How is PCOS diagnosed?
To diagnose PCOS, the doctor will:
  • Ask questions about your past health, symptoms, and menstrual cycles.
  • Do a physical exam to look for signs of PCOS, such as extra body hair and high blood pressure. The doctor will also check your height and weight to see if you have a healthy body mass index (BMI).
  • Do a number of lab tests to check your blood sugar, insulin, and other hormone levels. Hormone tests can help rule out thyroid or other gland problems that could cause similar symptoms.
  • You may also have a pelvic ultrasound to look for cysts on your ovaries. Your doctor may be able to tell you that you have PCOS without an ultrasound, but this test will help him or her rule out other problems.
Treatment: 
1. Regular exercise to prevent weight gain and staying fit and healthy.
2. Eat healthy food that includes fresh fruits and vegetables and avoid high fat diets. 
3, Most women with PCOS benefit  just from losing weight and their hormones come in balance . 
4. In order to regulate the menstrual cycle the doctor may prescribe certain medicine. 
5, If you are not trying to get pregnant birth control pills — pills that contain both estrogen and progestin can help regulate your cycle.
6. If you're not a good candidate for combination birth control pills, an alternative approach is to take progesterone for 10 to 14 days every one to two months. This type of progesterone therapy regulates your periods,
7. Your doctor also may prescribe metformin (Glucophage), an oral medication for type 2 diabetes that improves insulin resistance and lowers insulin levels. This drug may help with ovulation and lead to regular menstrual cycles. Metformin also slows the progression to type 2 diabetes if you already have prediabetes and aids in weight loss if you also follow a diet and an exercise program.
8. If you're trying to become pregnant, you may need a medication to help you ovulate. Clomiphene (Clomid) is an oral medication that you take in the first few days of your menstrual cycle. If clomiphene alone isn't effective, your doctor may add metformin to help induce ovulation.
9. If you don't become pregnant using clomiphene and metformin, your doctor may recommend using gonadotropins — follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) medications that are administered by injection.
10.  Another medication that your doctor may have you try is letrozole . Doctors don't know exactly how letrozole works to stimulate the ovaries, but it may help with ovulation when other medications fail.
11, When taking any type of medication to help you ovulate, it's important that you work with a reproductive specialist and have regular ultrasounds to monitor your progress and avoid problems.

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